Dec 13, 2023
Read time : 05 mins
DRABC is the acronym, and it stands for Danger, Response, Airway, Breathing and Circulation. In case of a casualty, every first aider must complete these five first aid DRABC steps in the primary survey procedure.
When a first aider comes across any incident, they must carry out a primary survey to identify the level of injury. DRABC in first aid helps make this process easier and more effective by providing five steps to perform in chronological order. DRABC in first aid has five steps: Danger, Response, Airway, Breathing and Circulation.
Any first aid assessment starts with the primary survey that involves performing a preliminary evaluation of the situation and the victim’s needs.
Primary survey DRABC is designed to make it easier for you to determine whether the casualty’s life is in urgent danger. You can use the primary survey to identify if someone has any life-threatening injuries or illnesses requiring emergency attention.
The subsequent action you take could very likely save their life, so it’s critical that you know how to complete the procedures in the proper sequence.
The abbreviation “DRABC” can be used to remember the five steps you must do to complete the primary survey. To guarantee that the most life-threatening conditions are evaluated and treated first, these must be followed in the order they are listed.
Assessing the situation for potential hazards is the first step in the primary survey. This calls on you to scan the surroundings for anything that might threaten you, the victim, or anybody else. It helps you determine if it’s safe for you to approach the victim.
Before approaching the casualty, you must attempt to make the surroundings safe if you spot any of these or other potential hazards. For instance, turn off the electricity at the source if there is a live electrical current. If this isn’t possible, you might be able to cut off the victim’s current by moving them with a material that doesn’t transmit electricity, such as wood or plastic. You must not make direct contact with the victim.
You can safely approach the casualty once the area has been secured or there are no threats. You should not approach the casualty; instead, seek emergency medical help if you cannot make the location safe.
Check if the casualty is responsive. You can ask them orally whether they are alright, to look at you, or to raise their hand. Before continuing, take care of any wounds or illnesses the casualty may have if they react to you by speaking to you or moving in another way.
Try tapping the victim on the arm or giving them a light shoulder shake if they don’t reply. If the casualty still doesn’t respond, you should continue with the primary survey’s next step.
The third step of the DRABC primary survey is to verify that the casualty’s airway is open and unobstructed.
You must check if the victim’s respiration is normal. You can check their respiration by tilting their head back, watching for chest movement, and listening for breathing noises. Check for ten minutes if air is coming from their lips or nose.
If the casualty is breathing normally, please continue to the last stage of the primary survey.
Contact emergency services if the patient is unresponsive and not breathing regularly. Start performing CPR with rescue breaths if you have received practical first-aid training and are confident in your abilities. If you haven’t had hands-on instruction, perform CPR simply with your hands. If available, ask someone else to bring an Automated External Defibrillator (AED).
In this phase, you must inspect the casualty for any major bleeding. You must try to control it if the victim is severely bleeding. If feasible, push directly on the wound with a clean cloth or a sterile dressing. Please ensure that you contact emergency services.
Stay at their side until emergency help arrives. Try to reassure them that help is on the way.
If the casualty is not bleeding and breathing regularly but is still unresponsive, you should place the casualty in the recovery position. If they vomit, keep them from choking.
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